Niveau 2





ALLER À etc...

VENIR DE etc...

DEPUIS etc...








Verbe être................................



Je suis
Tu es
Il est
Nous sommes
Vous êtes
Ils sont

Verbe être is used for conditions.

Je suis malade.

Tu es content.

Nous sommes tristes.

Used for descriptions.

La voiture est rouge.

Paul est méchant.

La femme est grosse.


When making descriptions we have to keep note of masculine, feminine and plural adjectives.

Ils sont contents
Elles sont contentes

Le vélo est vert.
La voiture est verte.

Il est américain.
Elle est américaine.























Passé avec être......................


We have seen that to make the past tense we use the verbe avoir as a helping verb.

Tu as mangé

Nous avons travaillé.

Certain verbs take the verb être. They are actions of self-displacement. Ie—I go, I fall, I go down, I return. They are more ideas of displacement rather than specific movements.  

For this reason, I call them coming and going verbs.

The majority can be remembered using this mnemonic device.


Dr + Mrs. Vandertramp

D evenir
R entrer

M ourir
R ester
S ortir

V enir
A ller
N aître
D escendre
E ntrer
R etourner
T omber
R evenir
A rriver
M onter
P artir


The three R`s

Revenir= come back here.
Retourner= go back there
Rentrer= go home.



























Aller à etc.........................................  


To express the idea “to” as in I go to the store,

we use a variation of the form


Now à in French works in combination with the article of the place you are going to.

For example if we are going to the restaurant, we have to keep in mind that it is “le” restaurant.

This becomes je vais au restaurant.

à  + le = au
à + la = à la
à + les = aux

Je vais à la pharmacie
Je vais aux jardins botaniques.


Geographical places

Going to a city ? Use à

Je vais à New York, à Montréal, à Chicago.

Same for in --- Je suis à Montréal, Je suis à Chicago.

For countries and provinces-

EN for feminin

AU for masculine

AUX for plural

EN for vowels

Je vais-----en France
                  au Mexique
                  aux Etats-Unis.

Je suis------en Ontario
                   au Nouveau Bruinswick
                   aux Territoires du Nord West.


Once you have used « au » or « aux » there is no need to insert « le » afterwards.

For example one musn’t say – Je vais au le restaurant.

It should be-- Je vais au restaurant.

Other verbs that take the preposition « à » which means “to”, in English.

Provided the context means going.

Voyager (in)

Other verbs (known as the TAG verbs) are associated with speaking to, or giving to and must also use variations of à.

Téléphoner à
Demander à
Donner à
Dire à
Parler à




Le verbe venir (to come) is used with “de” in the sense that I come from.

The “de” that means “from” changes with the gender of the place that one

is leaving from.

Like for aller “à”, “de” has formulas.

 de + le = du
                        De + la= de la
                         De + les = des

We say :   --- Il revient du café. ( le café)
                       Elle revient de la boulangerie. ( la boulangerie)
                       Nous revenons des jardins botaniques.  (les jardins botaniques)

When we are returning from cities, provinces and countries, special rules apply as well.

            All cities are “de”
            Provinces and states are “de la” or “du” according to the gender of the place.

Je viens --------------de la France.  ( La France)
Je viens---------------du Mexique ( Le Mexique)
Je viens---------------des Etats-Unis (Les Etats-Unis)

 Other verbs that take (de) provided that one is leaving from or returning from.

Rentrer de
Revenir de
Partir de
Sortir de
Arriver de






Depuis, Pendant, Pour, Il y a, En, Dans

Dealing with periods of time in French, as in other languages is important.
It is important to understand key concepts for immediate use.

FRENCH----ENGLISH equivalent

Depuis------- since ----
Pour----------(for a specific period)
Dans----------in (the future)
Il y a----------ago
En-------------to take (measured time)


Depuis often measures between a specific time and the present and often uses the present tense.

Je suis ici depuis septembre.

But also,

Il a arrêté de fumer depuis septembre.

It involves starting in the past and working forward to a specific time.

From A up till B.

J’ai mal au dos depuis dimanche. ----I have had a sore back since Sunday.


The French equivalent of during. Pendant describes the activities conducted during a set chunk of time

Je mange pendant l’heure du midi.
J’ai couru pendant une heure.
Je vais fumer pendant la pause.

Sometimes pendant is used to indicate simultaneous activities. 

Il boit son café pendant qu’il lit son journal. 


Is used very similarily to Pendant.

It can be used to talk about a set chunk of time.

Je vais en France pour trois semaines.
(Je vais en France pendant deux semaines)

It cannot be used in the context of simultaneous events.

Je mange pendant l’heure du midi. (not pour l’heure du midi.)
Il écoute de la musique pendant qu’il court. Not pour qu’il court.

Il y a

It used like ago in English.

He left two weeks ago.
Il est parti il y a deux semaines.

I saw Marie two minutes ago.
J’ai vu Marie il y a deux minutes.



The equivalent of « in » in English, it is used to indicate a distance elapsing towards the future.


I will be ready in two hours.
Je vais être prêt dans deux heures.


He is leaving in two days.
Il part dans deux jours.


This term deals with elapsed time.

The time it takes to get somewhere, or the time it takes to do something.

I got there in ten minutes.
Je suis arrivé en dix minutes.

Ready in five minutes.
Prêt en cinq minutes.

Pronoms objects

Pronouns are often used to replace nouns to make communication more efficient, faster and therefore easier.

When someone asks us.

Did your uncle with the sore finger and the bum leg call you last night?

We answer

Yes, he did.

Often we conjugate verbs with what we call subject pronouns.
These are pronouns that do the action.

Je mange

Nous mangeons

Elles mangent.

They are conjugated the same way as the equivalent nouns.

Pierre mange. (je)

Pierre et Marie mangent. (nous)

Les soeurs de Julie mangent. (elles)

Object pronouns

These are pronouns that replace the object or receiver of the actions.

Je regarde la pomme.

Pierre et Marie mangent le fruit.

 Les soeurs de Julie mangent les frites.

The object pronouns we will be working with here are preceded by the direct article:

Le, la or les.

Here is what we have to do.

Pierre mange la pomme.

To replace  la pomme,  we simply insert the direct article in front of the verb.

Pierre la mange.

Before-Pierre et Marie mangent le fruit.

After-Pierre et Marie le mangent.

Before-Les soeurs de Julie mangent les frites.

After-Les soeurs de Julie les mangent.
Once we have replaced the noun with a pronoun it is important not to use it again.

French speakers recognize that what was once a direct article has now become a pronoun, because of its placement directly in front of the verb.

La mange
Les mangent.


Poser les questions

There are three main ways of asking questions in French.

1. The easiest is to say an affirmative question while raising your voice at the end of the sentence.


Tu aimes les frites.

Raising your voice makes this a question.

Tu aimes les frites?

Used sparingly it can be quite effective, however, one cannot rely on this method alone.

The next way is to add the formula “Est-ce que…” before the affirmative statement.


Est-ce que tu aimes les frites?

Est-ce que tu va au parc ?

Est-ce qu’il va à la banque ?

Est-ce qu’ils ont mangé le gâteau.

The third and most elegant way is the inversion or the flip. To do this we invert the order of the pronoun in the verb.


Before----Tu aimes

The inversion is indicated with a dash between the inverted words.

Before----Tu vas à la banque.
After------Vas-tu à la banque.


When IL or ELLE, subject pronouns that start with a Vowel, are involved in the flip, we have to make sure there are no vowels abutting.

Aime -  elle la soupe?
Marche – il  au travail?

These are unacceptable to the French listener’s delicate ear,
so we add a T to make this easier.

Aime-t-elle la soupe?
Marche-t-il au travail.



Adjective placements

Adjectives are words that describe people or things.

Tall, red, happy, intelligent.

Normally in French, adjectives come after the noun they describe.

IE:        L’homme heureux.

La pomme rouge.

Le danseur fatigué. (tired)


There are exceptions and they are represented by the acronym B.A.G.S.

B eauty
A ge
G oodness
S ize


C’est une belle fille.
C’est un beau garcon.

C’est une jolie chambre.
C’est un joli chapeau.


C’est un vieux monsieur.
C’est une vieille personne.


C’est un bon livre.
C’est une bonne voiture.

C’est un gentil monsieur.
C’est une gentille madame.


C’est une grande autobus.
C’est un grand arbre.

C’est une petite fleur.
C’est un petit garçon.


Notice how the adjectives change with the gender of the thing described.


The Conditional.


Tu aimerais
Il aimerait
Nous aimerions
Vous aimeriez
Ils aimeraient


Je voudrais
Tu voudrais
Il vrouait


This is a mode of speaking that is used to show politeness
(It has other uses as well, but we will keep it simple for now.)

Instead of saying “ Je veux” to a server,

We would say je voudrais-^

Or we can say j’aimerais.

In both case we are saying the equivalent of I would like----

On familiar terms, we can use je veux, or after consulting the menu, “Je prends”, or “je vais prendre.”

When ordering….

Use the polite form and indirect articles ( Un, une, des)

J’aimerais un café.
Or if ordering for someone else.

Elle voudrait des frites.


When working off of a menu we tend to indicate specific items.

Thus we would say,

je vais prendre le poulet.

Elle va prendre la salade.
On aimerait le spécial.